BAHAN PERUSAK OZON (BPO) DAN PENGGUNAANNYA

Bahan Perusak Ozon (BPO) dan penggunaannya dalam kehidupan sehari-hari masih saja ditemukan. Padahal penggunaan Bahan Perusak Ozon menjadi pemicu utama menipisnya lapisan ozon, di samping penggundulan hutan (deforestasi) dan gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan pabrik.

Bahan Perusak Lapisan Ozon (BPO) adalah senyawa-senyawa kimia yang dapat bereaksi dengan molekul ozon di lapisan stratosfer, sehingga menjadikan lapisan ozon semakin tipis bahkan rusak. Dalam masyarakat modern senyawa-senyawa kimia perusak lapisan ozon banyak digunakan oleh manusia mulai di rumah tangga hingga dunia industri. Semakin banyak penggunaan bahan kimia perusak ozon maka akan semakin memperparah kerusakan lapisan ozon.

Padahal lapisan ozon yang terdapat di stratosfer, sekitar 50 km dari permukaan bumi, menjadi pelindung bumi dari radiasi ultraviolet yang disebabkan oleh matahari. Menipisnya lapisan ozon mengakibatkan pemanasan global yang memicu pencairan es di kutub, peningkatan tinggi permukaan air laut, tidak menentunya cuaca dan iklim, dan meningkatnya bencana alam. Penipisan lapisan ozon pun mengakibatkan meningkatkan radiasi ultraviolet sinar matahari ke bumi yang dapat menimbulkan penyakit kanker kulit, katarak mata, dan mengurangi daya tahan tubuh terhadap penyakit infeksi, menghambat pertumbuhan tanaman, hingga memusnahkan organisme kecil di bumi.

Protokol Montreal, sebuah perjanjian internasional pada tahun 1987, telah mengatur pengawasan produksi, konsumsi, dan perdagangan bahan-bahan perusak lapisan ozon. Protokol Montreal mengalami penyempurnaan melalui Amandemen London (1989), Amandemen Kopenhagen (1992), Amandemen Montreal (1997), serta Amandemen Beijing (1999), di mana pada kesemuanya Indonesia ikut meratifikasi. Selain mencantumkan jenis-jenis bahan kimia perusak ozon pun memuat jadwal penghapusan masing-masing jenis Bahan Perusak Ozon (BPO). (Baca : Hari Perlindungan Lapisan Ozon Sedunia 2014)

Adapun bahan-bahan perusak ozon dan penggunaannya antara lain :

  • Klorofluorokarbon (CFC) atau freon. Jenis CFC yang kerap digunakan adalah CFC-11 (trichloromonofluoromethane) dan CFC-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane). Bahan kimia ini banyak digunakan sebagai bahan pengembang dalam pembuatan busa dan panel insulasi, bahan pendingin dalam berbagai berbagai peralatan refrigerasi, serta bahan pendorong (propelan) dalam tabung spray, bahan pelarut dan pembersih. Barang-barang yang kerap menggunakannya adalah lemari es, Air Conditioner (AC), dan aerosol.
  • Hidroklorofluorokarbon (HCFC) atau freon, penggunaannya sama seperti CFC.
  • Halon. Jenisnya adalah bromo chlorodifluoro methane dan bromo triifuoro methane, digunakan sebagai bahan pemadam kebakaran.
  • Carbon Tetrachloride (CC14) atau karbon tetraklorida. Digunakan sebagai bahan pelarut, pembersih, bahan pemadam kebakaran, dan refrigerasi.
  • Methyl Chloroform (CH3CCI3). penggunaannya sama dengan karbon tetraklorida.
  • Methyl Bromida (CH3Br). Digunakan sebagai pestisida, bahan fumigasi dalam pergudangan dan dan karantina pertanian.

Kini telah banyak barang yang tidak lagi menggunakan bahan-bahan perusak ozon tersebut, meskipun tidak semuanya. Namun sebelum semua bahan-bahan kimia tersebut dihapus, cukup bijak jika kemudian kita selektif dalam memilih produk-produk yang bebas dari bahan perusak ozon.

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